EPD based on EN 15804
EN 15804 is the European standard for EPDs in the construction industries. The EN 15804 standard defines how companies should proceed to create environmental product declarations (EPD).
The purpose of this document is to define clear guidelines when performing a life cycle assessment (LCA ), to ensure that the same LCA methods are being used for any product group, and to support the modularity principal, so that each EPD can be used as an information source for construction works.
This standard harmonizes the structure for EPDs in the construction sector, making the information transparent and comparable.
A PCR (Product Category Rules) is normally developed as a supplement to EN 15804 and contains an additional set of rules for specific product categories.
The PCRs should, among other things, determine which materials and processes the analysis shall include and the declared unit for the product. This ensures that manufacturers must include the substances with significant environmental impact, and so making it easier for the customer to compare the environmental impact of products within the same category.
See the various PCRs that have been developed for the Norwegian market on the website of EPD-Norge.
Revision of EN 158049 (+A2:2019)
NS-EN 15804: 2012 + A2: 2019 was established as the Norwegian Standard in December 2019. This standard replaces NS-EN 15804: 2012 + A1: 2013.
The standard provides for a transition period of 3 years, but EPD-Norway aims to have all Norwegian EPDs to follow + A2: 2019 by the end of 2021.
- Mandatory to include modules C and D (with a few exceptions)
- Biogenic carbon must be included in the EPD
- Several new environmental and resource indicators
Read more: Consequences of EN 15804:A2 to Product Category Rules (PCR) for construction products The Norwegian EPD Foundation Oslo, Norway, April 26th 2021
There are several reasons why C and D have become mandatory, but it is especially important for wood products.
Wood products absorb CO2 in the growth phase (before A1-A3), but this must be emitted again in C3. Net, that balance is seen as climate neutral.
The new environmental and resource indicators allow EPDs to cover more environmental problems, such as toxicity and particulate emissions (PM),
GWP is now split into 4 indicatorsr, GWPtotal, GWPfossil, GWPbiogenic and GWPluluc
The additional indicators help ensure that the EPD harmonises better with the PEF, Product Environmental Footprint from the European Commission.
EPD according to old standard EN15804 + A1: 2013
- GWP : Global Warming Potential
The indicator includes all greenhouse gases included in the GWP total, but excludes biogenic carbon dioxide uptake and emissions and biogenic carbon stored in the product.
EPD according to new standard EN15804 + A2: 2019
- GWP-total: Global Warming Potential – total
- GWP-fossil: Global Warming Potential – fossil fuels
- GWP-biogenic: Global Warming Potential – biogenic
- GWP-luluc: Global Warming Potential – land use and land use change
- EP-freshwater:Eutrophication potential, fraction of nutrients reaching freshwater end compartment
- EP-marine: Eutrophication potential, fraction of nutrients reaching marine end compartment
- EP-terrestrial: Eutrophication potential, Accumulated Exceedance
- WDP: Water (user) deprivation potential, deprivation-weighted water consumption
EPDs according to the “old” standard will not be comparable with EPDs according to the new standard, due to change in the way the indicators are calculated!
What to register in C and D ?
- C1 Deconstruction / Demolition: Module C1 covers the use of energy and other auxiliaries required to demolish the building or structure in which the product is incorporated.
- C2 Transport of waste: Module C2 covers all types of transport from the product is dismantled until it is delivered for waste management.
- C3 Waste treatment: Here, the product is distributed on to different waste treatment methods.
- C4 Disposal: C4 covers the amount of waste from the product that cannot be reused / recycled, but must be disposed of or treated without any benefit to another system.
D Reuse-recycling-recycling potential
At the end of service life (Module D) – outside the system boundaries
Module D covers material flows that have achieved a new function /life and are therefore no longer considered waste.
- Incineration of materials that become energy that can be used in district heating, electricity production and other industrial processes. This exported energy replaces other energy production. This second energy production can be deducted in module D.
- Recyclable materials such as plastics and metals can be used in new products instead of virgin resources. Extraction and processing of such materials can be deducted in module D.